Tomkins, A, Public Law (2003) Oxford University Press, p. 3
 Saudi Arabia’s “informal” constitutional instrument is the Basic Law of Governance promulgated by royal decree in 1992. Article 1 of the Basic Law establishes the Holy Qur’an and the Sunna as the constitution. Basic Law of Governance published in full on <www.saudiembassy.net about/country-information/laws/The_Basic_Law_Of_Governance.aspx >
 For example, racial laws were enshrined in various constitutions, most recently in apartheid South Africa. In the former Soviet Union, there was the dictatorship of the proletariat.
 Webley, Lisa and Samuels, Harriet (2012) Public Law (second edition) Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 62
 The last amendment was in 1992. As per the official website dedicated to the US Constitution <www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/ >
 Leyland, Peter (2007) The constitution of the United Kingdom: a contextual analysis Oxford and Portland: Hart Publishing, p. 2
 Tomkins, A, op.cit, p. 7
 In absolutist and theocratic states like Saudi Arabia, the government needed to find a way by which to accord its policies with the workings of the contemporary increasingly globalised world. The preamble to Basic Law of Governance states the king brought about the law “having taken into consideration the public interest, and in view of the progress of the State in various fields”
 Mount, Ferdinand (1992) The Recovery of the Constitution Charter 88, p. 2
 Tomkins, op.cit. p. 3. Also Bogdanor, Vernon (2009) The NewBritish Constitution Oxford and Portland: Hart Publishing, p. 9
 Bogdanor, V, op.cit. p. 11
 Lord Bingham, ‘The Sixth Sir David Williams Lecture: The Rule of Law’, delivered on 16 November 2006 at the Centre for Public Law, London.
 Raz, Joseph (1979) “The Rule of Law and its Virtue”, in Raz, J. The authority of law: essays on law and morality Clarendon Press, p. 215: “The law must be open and adequately publicized. If it is to guide people they must be able to find out what it is. For the same reason its meaning must be clear. An ambiguous, vague, obscure, or imprecise law is likely to mislead or confuse at least some of those who desire to be guided by it”.
 Barber, N W, “Against a Written Constitution” (2008) Public Law, p. 11
 Feldman, David (2005) “None, One or Several? Perspectives on the UK’s Constitution(s)” Cambridge Law Journal, Vol. 64, Issue 02, p. 329
 The First Minister of Scotland, Alex Salmond, speaking to the Foreign Press Association in London on 16 January 2013.
 The BBC (2008) “Straw’s written constitution hint”, BBC News, 13 February. “[the document] would spell out an individual’s obligations to society and place a new emphasis on the concept of civic duty”. Mr Straw was also quoted as saying that “the next stage in the UK’s constitutional development is to look at whether we need better to articulate those rights which are scattered across a whole host of different places and indeed the responsibilities that go with being British.”
The Governance of Britain, Cm. 7170 (July 2007), para. 212, quoted in Bogdanor, V and Vogenauer, S “Enacting a British Constitution: Some Problems” (2008) Public Law, Spring, p. 38
 Bogdanor, V and Vogenauer, S, op.cit. In this instance, the elective dictatorship was the Conservative Government
 The term became successful almost immediately, and in following years was aimed as an invective both at the right and the left of the political spectrum.
 Gearty, Conor (2013) “What would you put in a UK constitution?”, The Guardian, 8 October
 Butler, Eamonn (2013) “Should Britain have a written constitution?”, on the blog of Adam Smith Institute, 12 December
 Lord Scarman op.cit.
 Institute for Public Policy Research (1991) A Written Constitution for the United Kingdom London: Mansell Publishing, p.73
 Tony Benn’s bill as quoted in Barnett, Hilare (2002) Constitutional and Administrative Law Cavendish Publishing, p. 174
 Barber N W, op.cit.
 Colley, Linda (2011) “Why Britain needs a written constitution”, The Guardian, 4 November
 Barber N W, op.cit.
 Bogdanor and Vogenauer, op. cit., p 40
 McLean, Iain (2012) What’s wrong with the British constitution? OUP. The institutions named above give the chapter titles of Part IV, “Things to Leave Out of Written Constitution”
 Jack Straw quoted by the BBC (2008) “Straw’s written constitution hint”, BBC News, 13 February
 Barber N W, op. cit., p. 14
 This paper will not emit any judgments as to the success of these efforts, but will merely record their presence in the constitution debate.
 Clark, Tom (2012) “Queen enjoys record support in Guardian/ICM poll” The Guardian, 24 May; Hennessy, Patrick (2013) “Confidence in British monarchy at all-time high, poll shows”, The Daily Telegraph, 27 July
 Stephen Hockman, Chairman of the Bar Council for England and Wales, in a letter to The Times, 8 February 2006, quoted in Bogdanor and Vogenauer, op.cit,. p. 39
 Lord Bingham, op.cit. For the year 2004, he quoted “some 3500 pages of primary legislation; [and] in 2003, nearly 9000 pages of statutory instruments.”
 Baker, J (2013) “The Unwritten Constitution of the United Kingdom” Ecclesiastical Law Journal 15(1), p. 4, at p. 8. The text was first delivered as the British Academy’s Maccabean Lecture in 2009 and was originally published in (2011) Proceedings of the British Academy 167. He put the number at “around 15,000 pages of new legislation every year, and the Labour Government is famously credited with the creation of some 3,000 new criminal offences.”
 MacCormick, N (1999) Questioning Sovereignty: Law, State, and Nation in the European Commonwealth OUP, p. 50
 Scotland Act 1998, Northern Ireland Act 1998, Government of Wales Act 1998 (later superseded by the Government of Wales Act 2006)
 Dicey, A V, The Law of the Constitution (1885), as stated in the “Introduction”
Thoburn v Sunderland City Council  EWHC 195 (Admin) at 62–64
 Tomkins, A, op.cit., p. 9–13
 Tomkins, A, op.cit., p. 15
 Barber N W,. op.cit., p. 18
 Barber N W, op.cit., p. 14
Barber, N W (2012) The Constitutional State (reprint edition) Oxford: Oxford University Press
Bogdanor, Vernon (2009) The New British Constitution Oxford and Portland: Hart Publishing
Dicey A V (1885) Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, ed. Roger E Michener, Indianapolis: Liberty Fund 1982
Institute for Public Policy Research (1991) A Written Constitution for the United Kingdom London: Mansell Publishing,
Loughlin, Martin (2013) The British Constitution: A very Short Introduction Oxford: Oxford University Press
MacCormick, Neil (1999) Questioning Sovereignty: Law, State, and Nation in the European Commonwealth Oxford: Oxford University Press
McLean, Iain (2012) What’s wrong with the British constitution? Oxford: Oxford University Press
Mount, Ferdinand (1992) The Recovery of the Constitution London: Charter 88
Raz, Joseph (1979) “The Rule of Law and its Virtue” in Raz, Joseph The authority of law: essays on law and morality Oxford: Clarendon Press
Leyland, Peter (2007) The constitution of the United Kingdom: a contextual analysis Oxford and Portland: Hart Publishing
Lord Scarman (1992) Why Britain Needs a Written Constitution London: Charter 88
de Tocqueville, Alexis (1835) Democracy in America: Historical-Critical Edition of De la démocratie en Amérique, ed. Eduardo Nolla (translated from the French by James T. Schleifer. A Bilingual French-English edition) Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2010). Vol. 1. Chapter: CHAPTER 8: Of the Federal Constitution accessed from <http://oll.libertyfund.org/title/2285/218828> on 16 January 2014
Tomkins, Adam, Public Law (2003) Oxford: Clarendon Law Series, Oxford University Press
Webley, Lisa and Samuels, Harriet (2012) Public Law (second edition) Oxford: Oxford University Press
Baker, John (2013) “The Unwritten Constitution of the United Kingdom” Ecclesiastical Law Journal 15(1), p. 4
Barber, N.W. (2008) “Against a Written Constitution” Public Law, Spring, p. 11
Barnett, Anthony (2009) “Bye bye, British Constitution”, The Guardian, 5 November, accessed from <www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2009/nov/05/end-british-unwritten-constitution> on 20 January 2014
Beatson, Jack (2010) “Reforming an unwritten constitution” Law Quarterly Review 126, p. 48
Bogdanor, Vernon and Vogenauer, Stefan “Enacting a British Constitution: Some Problems” (2008) Public Law, Spring, p. 38
Butler, Eamonn (2013) “Should Britain have a written constitution?”, on the blog of Adam Smith Institute, 12 December, accessed from <www.adamsmith.org/blog/liberty-justice/should-britain-have-a-written-constitution> on 15 February 2014
BBC Staff (2008) “Straw’s written constitution hint” , BBC News, 13 February, accessed from <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/7241942.stm > on 15 February 2014
Clark, Tom (2012) “Queen enjoys record support in Guardian/ICM poll” The Guardian, 24 May, accessed from <www.theguardian.com/uk/2012/may/24/queen-diamond-jubilee-record-support > on 15 February 2014
Colley, Linda (2007) “Does Britishness Still Matter in the Twenty‐First Century — and How Much and How Well Do the Politicians Care?” The Political Quarterly 78, p. 21
Colley, Linda (2011) “Why Britain needs a written constitution”, The Guardian, 4 November, accessed from <http://www.theguardian.com/books/2011/nov/04/why-britain-needs-written-constitution > on 15 February 2014
Feldman, David (2005) “None, One or Several? Perspectives on the UK’s Constitution(s)” The Cambridge Law Journal, Vol. 64, Issue 02, p. 329
Gearty, Conor (2013) “What would you put in a UK constitution?”, The Guardian, 8 October, accessed from <www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/oct/08/what-would-you-put-uk-constitution > on 26 January 2014
Hennessy, Patrick (2013) “Confidence in British monarchy at all-time high, poll shows”, The Daily Telegraph, 27 July, accessed from < www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/theroyalfamily/10206708/Confidence-in-British-monarchy-at-all-time-high-poll-shows.html > on 16 February 2014
Jaconelli, Joseph (1985) “Constitutional Review in an Unwritten Constitution”
International and Comparative Law Quarterly 34, p. 627
R(HS2 Action Alliance Ltd) v Secretary of State for Transport  UKSC 3
Thoburn v Sunderland City Council  EWHC 195 (Admin)
Lord Bingham, ‘The Sixth Sir David Williams Lecture: The Rule of Law’, delivered on 16 November 2006 at the Centre for Public Law, London. Annotated transcript accessed from <www.cpl.law.cam.ac.uk/past_activities/the_rt_hon_lord_bingham_the_rule_of_law.php> on 25 January 2014
Salmond, Alex, speech to the Foreign Press Association delivered on 16 January 2013 in London. Transcript accessed from <www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Speeches/constitution-rights-16-01-2013> on 10 February 2014
Various contributors, ‘Constitution UK: Crowdsourcing the UK’s Constitution’ <http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/constitutionuk/ >
Various contributors, ‘The Commission on a Bill of Rights’ report– A UK Bill of Rights? — The Choice Before Us’ press release published on 18 December 2012, accessed from <www.justice.gov.uk/news/press-releases/cbr/the-commission-on-a-bill-of-rights-report-a-uk-bill-of-rights-the-choice-before-us > on 10 February 2014
Various contributors, ‘The Basic Law of Governance’ <http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/constitutionuk/ >
(This is the second part of a three-part series on the codification of the United Kingdom)
By Isabella Reynoso
A constitution is essential for the organization of a state as it contains the fundamental principles and rules upon which a state exists (Beatson, 2010). Although the British constitution contains written sources such as statutes, it is one of few in the world that is not ‘codified into a single document, or collections of documents’ (Blick 2011: 9). As suggested by Blick (2011) this is due to the absence of a critical moment in history, such as a revolution or an independence that has made Britain reform the constitution to the extent of codifying it. Moreover, two of the most important principles of the British constitution are that it is based on parliamentary supremacy and the separation of powers. Meaning that Parliament, as opposed to a codified constitution, is the highest source of law in the UK (Dicey, 1959), and that the executive, legislative and judiciary powers shall be separate from each other. Additionally, the existence of only a few other countries in the world that do not have a codified constitution, along with recent constitutional reforms such as the Human Rights Act of 1998 and the Constitutional Reform Act of 2005, have rekindled the debate on whether or not the UK should codify its constitution (McHarg, 2008).
This essay will firstly introduce some of the proposals that have been brought forward for a written constitution. It will then argue that even though it is suggested that codifying the constitution would result in the balance of the power of the executive, further accountability, and stability, the current constitution already holds these positive factors. Additionally, Britain should not adopt a written constitution due to its history, the sources and principles of the constitution, and the practical difficulties that would result from its codification.
The debate about the codification of the British constitution has gone through a number of phases in the last thirty years (Oliver, 1992). However, most recently, suggestions for a radical reform of the constitution into a codified one have surfaced (Oliver, 1992). These have been represented by the drafting of three possible constitutions: the Macdonald Constitution, published with the Liberal Democrats federal green paper, the Tony Benn’s Constitution, ordered by the House of Commons in 1991 and the IPPR constitution. Even though these government white papers and consultation documents display different motivations for the codifications of the constitution, there are some reasons identified to be the most important, such as the balance of the power of the executive, stability, and clarity (Beatson, 2010).
Even though the British constitution is based on the separation of powers, in reality, the composition of Parliament shows that the principle is not upheld. Since the majority of ministers are members of the elected party, the executive effectively becomes part of the legislature, the highest source of law in the UK.
Therefore, it is suggested that the government can easily amend the constitution, and has too much power in its hands. Consequently, one of the suggested advantages of codifying the British constitution and abolishing Parliament as the highest source of law would be the control of the executive power by balancing it and making it accountable. (Beatson, 2010). Furthermore, it is suggested that by introducing a written constitution the control of the executive on the legislature would not effectively amount to changing the constitution. This would be further controlled by the constitutional courts.
Nevertheless, the existence of constitutional conventions, defined as habits or practices that regulate constitutional behaviour and the conduct of public office holders (Bradley and Ewing, 2011), already balance the power of the executive and hold it accountable in a more efficient way than the courts would (Blick, 2011). For example, if the voting population were to refuse to tolerate the breach of a constitutional convention, the executive would probably find itself accused of being illegitimate. As rightly argued by Jennings, if conventions are ignored, it results in severe political repercussions (Chand, 1938). An example of this would be the rejection of the House of Lords to pass the budget in 1909. The Lords’ actions undoubtedly breached a convention, and by refusing to pass a Finance Bill there were political repercussions. After a prolonged crisis, the Parliament Act of 1911 incorporated the convention into primary legislation (Leyland, 2012). Additionally, the statement that “Parliament may pass many laws, which many people do not want, but it never passes any laws, which any substantial section of the population violently dislikes” (Ewing 2004: 741), supports this. It is subsequently argued that constitutional conventions are not legally binding, unclear and therefore the supposed ‘check’ that the current constitution exerts on the executive is not demanding and solid enough (Beatson, 2010). However, the fact that the executive would probably face political difficulties and that it is likely to find itself accused as illegitimate if it breaches an important convention, unquestionably constitutes a valid argument against the allegation that the current constitution neither balances the power of the executive, nor does it hold the executive to account.
Additionally, it is suggested that by codifying the constitution and having an entrenched document as the highest source of law instead of Parliament, the constitution would be more stable as it will be more difficult to amend (Beatson, 2010). Nonetheless, if it were to be codified, it would be a definite step towards depriving the constitution of one of its most important characteristics:its flexibility. The flexibility, which the British constitution is recognized for, is essential “to ensure that the legal framework of the constitution is operated in accordance with the prevailing constitutional values of the period” (Bradley and Ewing 2011: 25). This allows changes to be made to the constitution according to the current political and social circumstances. As supported by Bogdanor, Khaitan and Vogenauer (2007) the lack of a codified constitution means that Britain did not need to formulate a statements or laws Doing so would quickly render it redundant as a result of political change. For example, a constitution, which was drafted in 1830, would have included declarations about voting rights and the powers of the House of Lords, which would have become redundant after the Great Reform Act of 1832, Parliament(Bogdanor, Khaitan and Vogenauer, 2007). Additionally, the constitution’s flexibility allows the uncomplicated development and change within the constitution, while its legal aspect remains unaffected (Allen and Thompson, 2011). An example of this would be the creation of the ‘Sewel Convention’ in 1999, which prohibited Parliament from legislating on matters that had been devolved to the Scottish Parliament without obtaining its consent beforehand. Therefore, as stated by Professor Ringen in Blick (2011: 9), “The British constitution is a complex and evolving living organism” characterized by its flexibility which proves as an evident advantage for society due to the possibility of the constitution to evolve with society and current political values.
Moreover, one of the most important reasons put forward for the codification of the constitution is the fact that it would provide a clearer and more accessible account of the fundamental rules and principles according to which the state is established and governed (Bogdanor, Khaitan and Vogenauer, 2007). Nevertheless, the practical difficulties that would result from codifying the constitution far outweigh the advantage of making the constitution easier to access for the public. First of all, as stated by Blick (2011), the precise content of the constitution would be difficult to determine. This is due to the unwritten sources of the constitution such as conventions, that while constituting an extremely important source, are mostly undefined and not legally binding. It is suggested that it would be advantageous to gather the conventions on a specific subject together, preventing them from losing their flexibility while accommodating some of the advantages of codification such as clarity and organization (Ewing, 2004). However, it would be an obvious disadvantage to include them in the constitution as legally binding obligations, as they are not only difficult to define but they would also would loose their essence of binding purely on a non-legal basis. Furthermore, the fact that the British constitution is based on parliamentary sovereignty presents another difficulty if it were to be codified. This is supported by Blick (2011) who states that “There is either a direct choice between the retention of parliamentary supremacy or a written constitution”, implying that there would be an obvious clash against Britain’s most important constitutional principle.
Therefore, even though it is suggested that codifying the constitution would lead to further accountability, balance, stability and clarity, the current constitution already holds these positive aspects. Additionally, as stated by Barber in Parpworth (2012) Britain’s constitution has been a success for years and has produced a stable government in terms of democracy, transparency, and human rights. Therefore, the British constitution should not be codified because this would only bring practical difficulties, constituting a substantial step towards depriving the British constitution of its flexibility
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