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Energy Crisis In Pakistan Essay Css Tutorial

An unending energy crisis could soon bring catastrophic consequences. Here’s what needs to be done before it’s too late.

Last week, Pakistan was hit by a heat wave of highly tragic proportions due to energy crisis.

The country has suffered through deadly hot spells in the past, but the lethality of this latest one was astounding. According to Pakistani officials, high temperatures killed more than 1,200 people — most of them in Karachi — over a one-week period. The true figure could be much higher, given the likelihood of unreported deaths.
In effect, this heat wave killed more than twice as many people in a matter of days as terrorism has over the entire year (as of late June, about 530 Pakistani civilians had died in terrorist attacks in 2015).

This crisis was exacerbated by rampant power outages. Many households had little electricity to operate fans or air conditioning units; in Karachi, some complained of having no power for more than 12 hours per day. While the rich ran emergency generators, the less fortunate faced stifling conditions that hastened heatstroke and, often enough, death. One woman in Karachi became sick and later died after suffering in an electricity-deprived home that her son described as “like a baking oven.” Power cuts even denied dignity to those killed by the heat wave. CNN’s Saima Mohsin reported that one charity-run morgue had no electricity to keep bodies cool, resulting in an overpowering “stench of death.”

Sadly, such energy woes aren’t surprising.

Deep and Destabilizing

Pakistan has been convulsed by power outages for years. Electricity deficits on any given day may range from 4,500 to 5,000 megawatts (MW), though they’ve sometimes soared to 8,500 MW — more than 40 percent of national demand. These figures are somewhat comparable to those of India (which has experienced shortfalls between 3,000 and 7,500 MW over the last year or so). Many other countries in the developing world, particularly in Africa, also experience power shortfalls of varying levels. Developed countries experience deficits less frequently, though they sometimes face localized modest shortages (for example, in February 2011, power plant breakdowns caused deficits in Texas).

Pakistan’s supply shortages, however, merely represent the tip of an immense iceberg.

As I argue in Pakistan’s Interminable Energy Crisis, a new Wilson Center report, Pakistan’s energy problems are rooted more in shortages of governance than of supply. The energy sector suffers from transmission and distribution (T&D) losses that have exceeded 30 percent, as well as from several billion dollars of debt. The losses are caused by bad equipment, poor maintenance, and energy theft. The debt — often described as “circular” in nature — is a consequence of cash flow problems. Energy generators, distributors, and transmitters lack funds. This is due in part to a flawed pricing policy: The Pakistani government charges a pittance for energy, and yet few customers pay their bills. As a result, revenue is scarce, and the sector literally cannot afford to provide energy.

Pakistan’s energy crisis has troubling implications for its fragile economy and volatile security situation. In recent years, power shortages have cost the country up to 4 percent of GDP. Hundreds of factories (including many in the industrial hub city of Faisalabad alone) have been forced to close. Some Western companies, citing electricity deficits, have suspended operations in Pakistan. In January, the Moody’s ratings group warned that energy shortages will damage Pakistan’s credit worthiness.

Meanwhile, militants are happy to exploit Pakistan’s energy insecurity. Over the last four years, separatists in the insurgency-riven province of Balochistan have targeted more than 100 gas lines. Back in April 2013, the Pakistani Taliban blew up the largest power station in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province. Half of Peshawar, the provincial capital with a population nearly as large as Los Angeles, lost power. And just last week, the Pakistani Taliban tapped into widespread anger at Karachi’s main electricity utility, K-Electric, by threatening to attack the facility if it did not restore power.

Wide expanses of Pakistan’s population are affected by the energy crisis. Shortages prevent people from working, cooking, and receiving proper medical care (in some hospitals, services have been curtailed). Not surprisingly, public opinion polls in Pakistan identify electricity shortages as one of the country’s top problems.

In sum, the energy crisis threatens Pakistan’s economy and its precarious security situation, while also deleteriously affecting the lives of everyday residents across the board. Something needs to be done, and fast.

Sustainable Solutions, Not Short-Term Fixes

Pakistan’s Interminable Energy Crisis offers nearly 20 recommendations to ease the crisis in a meaningful and lasting way. It calls above all for a new way of thinking about energy — one that emphasizes more judicious use of existing resources. This means aggressively reducing T&D losses; better enforcing laws against energy theft; developing robust maintenance regimes to ensure that energy infrastructure does not fall into disrepair; and establishing incentives for consumers to use less energy. Achieving these objectives would drastically enhance energy security. Our report estimates that Pakistan’s energy savings potential is about 2,250 MW — roughly half of its total power shortfall.

We also urge officials to pursue a more affordable energy mix. This will require less focus on expensive imports and more focus on indigenous reserves. Pakistan should embrace domestic coal, though within reason; technological and infrastructural constraints preclude heavy exploitation. It should pursue indigenous natural gas alternatives such as tight and shale gas; current reserves are estimated to be quadruple those of conventional natural gas. Pakistan should take advantage of falling solar and wind power costs to increase the proportion of renewables in its energy mix. It can make its mix even greener by adapting other cleaner fuels, such as coal briquettes — which are cleaner than ordinary coal when burned.

Additionally, we recommend more effective energy market policies. Pakistan’s government should scale back its involvement in the energy sector and encourage privatization — but not necessarily full-scale privatization. While electricity generation companies should be fully privatized, it may be prudent for distribution companies — which tend to be larger and employ more people than generation companies — to be restructured through the use of franchising, which transfers operational responsibilities to private actors while the government maintains ownership over assets. Pakistan should also aim to attract a more geographically diverse set of foreign investors. Its aggressive courtship of Chinese companies has made some energy investors from other countries fear the lack of a level playing field.

Finally, we call for institutional reform: Pakistan should bring more coordination and order to a dysfunctional and chaotic energy sector. This means establishing a new energy ministry with overarching responsibility, and with full access to top policy levels; streamlining institutional decision-making processes so that policies no longer need so many approvals (more than 15 government entities are currently involved in energy policy); and integrating energy subsector plans and policies to support national goals. For Pakistan to ease its energy crisis, it needs more effective energy policies — but energy policies can only be as effective as the institutions that shape them.

Costs of Inaction

These are admittedly ambitious proposals, and Pakistan’s risk-averse politicians may wish to have nothing to do with them. That, however, would be a big mistake. Because as bad as things are now, Pakistan’s Interminable Energy Crisis warns, they could soon get much worse.

Pakistan is in the midst of rapid urbanization — a major societal shift that could worsen the effects of energy problems in the years ahead. Demand for electricity is particularly high in cities, because urban industries and homes tend to be more dependent than those in the hinterland on grid-connected energy sources. With droves of Pakistanis entering cities and becoming dependent on grids, supply pressures will deepen exponentially.

And with demand for energy rising dramatically in the coming years, Pakistan could face unprecedented shortages.

Our report concludes that during a period stretching from 2014 into 2015, peak demand was 20,800 MW. This figure is expected to rise to nearly 32,000 MW by 2019. In effect, in just four years, demand could exceed, by nearly 10,000 MW, Pakistan’s current installed capacity of 23,000 MW. To address this gap, Pakistan may need to install as much electrical capacity in the current decade as it did over the last 60 years.

Ultimately, if Pakistan does not move with alacrity to address its energy woes, the challenges that the crisis presents today will seem tame compared to what could be in store in the years ahead.

This means, among other things, that when heat waves strike Pakistan in the future, power outages could be even more lengthy and widespread than they are today.

And, tragically, many people — perhaps even more than the staggering 1,200-in-a-week that perished this time around — would likely die as a result.

 

Courtesy: Foreign Policy

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Ghias Hashmi, Founder and Teacher @ pace.pk, is a dentist by profession and has qualified CSS/PMS examinations, He is currently a student of M.Phil Political Science and his passions include learning and dissemination of knowledge along with mentoring for CSS/PMS aspirants.

  • Give a comprehensive appraisal of the revival of democracy after the interregnum of 1999-2002. (2002)
  • Debate, National Interests VS Democratic Values in the context of recent political and constitutional developments in Pakistan. (2003)
  • The rise of religious extremism and militancy has become a major challenge to Pakistan’s internal stability and promotion of democracy. Elaborate. (2008)
  • Why most countries of the Muslim world are devoid of democratic governance? What changes would you recommend to make them modern democratic states? (2009)
  • Democracy in Pakistan has remained an elusive dream. Why it has taken so long to develop a road map and follow it with necessary modification? Explain (2009)
  • Governance through ordinances has been the hallmark of all regimes, democratic or otherwise, in Pakistan. In this context briefly review Pakistan’s political, constitutional and judicial landmarks. (2000)
  • Note: Ramification of Taliban’s style governance. (2000)
  • Pakistan is suffering from crises of governance at Institutional level. Suggest remedies to mitigate this situation. (2007)
  • Discuss politics of World Trade Organization and Globalization. (2000)
  • Globalization, as being shaped by the World Trade Organization in a world of un-equal nation-slates, has un-manageable implications. Discuss. (2003)
  • “A single catastrophic event –‘Nine Eleven’ – has turned the entire world topsy-turvy”. Discuss. (2002)
  • Give a long-term scenario of Afghanistan and Iraq beyond the perspective of’ Nine Eleven’. (2003)
  • The phenomenon of terrorism has occupied center stage in today’s world. Highlight the difference between terrorism and a freedom struggle. Discuss the issue of terrorism in the back drop of what is happening in Iraq, Chechnya, Kashmir and Afghanistan (2005)

 

MILITANCY & EXTREMISM

  • The rise of religious extremism and militancy has become a major challenge to Pakistan’s internal stability and promotion of democracy. Elaborate. (2008)
  • Discuss the causes of extremism and militancy in Pakistani society. Suggest ways and means for the state organs to overcome these problems. (2013)

 

GLOBAL WARMING & POLLUTION

  • What are the factors which contribute to the global warming? What measures have been agreed in the Kyoto protocol to minimize the harmful effects of Pollution?(2007)
  • What are the strategic objectives of America’s increased embroilment in South Asia‘s power relationship? (2000)
  • Determine the extent to which the objectives of Americans-led global coalition against the so-called terrorism are achievable. (2001)
  • Critically evaluate the US concerns about the production of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) (2002)
  • How has the conflict between US and Iraq affected them and the world at large? (2002)
  • The new dimensions in Indo US warming up of relations would have serious implications for Pakistan and the world region. Discuss. (2005)
  • America has been bogged down in Iraq and Afghanistan. What would be Americas exit strategy to disengage itself from the prevalent confrontational situation? Discuss. (2005)
  • US accusations against North Korea, Syria and Iran are meant to bring them within the purview of the doctrine of pre-emptive war. Discuss. (2006)
  • Note: Neo-Conservatism in USA (2007)
  • There is a perception that USA is preparing to attack Iran. Discuss the possibilities of this scenario and its implication at global level especially in the Middle East, and on Pakistan. (2007)
  • The attack on Iraq by USA was an attempt to control oil resources of the area and redraw the map of Middle East. Having failed in to achieve both objectives, what policy options would be required by USA towards Middle East for peaceful relations? (2009)
  • The strength of Chinese economy is perceived as a threat by USA to its dwindling hegemony. What changes at policy level are required by America for harmonious relations with china? (2009)
  • President Obama’s extended hand of friendship to china ushers in a new era of realist diplomacy in Washington. Highlight the new dimensions of U.S.foreign policy towards People’s Republic of china. (2010)
  • “The new afghan strategy of U.S.,in fact,is a veiled request for their safe exit. It is a gamble.the price of victory will be high and the price of failure is incalculable.” Analyze and comment. (2010)
  • Discuss the strengths of USA to implement its economic policies worldwide. (2014)
  • Note: China’s potential as super power. (2000)
  • The strength of Chinese economy is perceived as a threat by USA to its dwindling hegemony. What changes at policy level are required by America for harmonious relations with china? (2009)
  • Note: Chinese aided development Projects in Pakistan. (2010)
  • Discuss impact of economic development of China on World Order. (2012)
  • Discuss the importance of Pak-China relations. How does this relationship effect political and security environment in South Asia? (2013)
  • Note: Issue of control over Al Quds. (2000)
  • How has the apathetic role of Arab countries complicated the issue of Palestine? (2001)
  • Note: Current Palestinian situation and the Arab neighbours. (2003)
  • Note: Palestine issue. (2008)
  • Note: Jewish settlements in Palestinian territories. (2010)

 

ARAB SPRING

  • How will “Arab spring” effect the political and security environment in the Arab World? (2013)

 

  • Note: Great Game in Central Asia (2008)
  • Note: Economic Potential of Central Asia. (2009)
  • Visualize the post-Taliban Scenario in Afghanistan and discuss its implications for Pakistan. (2001)
  • Give a long-term scenario of Afghanistan and Iraq beyond the perspective of’ Nine Eleven’. (2003)
  • Discuss the current sociopolitical and security situation of Afghanistan and its implications for the neighbouring countries. (2013)
  • China, India and Pakistan are three Nuclear States in the Asian Continent. Is this a potential threat or strength for the continent? Analyze. (2007)
  • Dynastic Politics in South Asia has become a norm rather than an exception what are the merits and demerits of this political arrangement? Analyze and comment?(2009)
  • In the present day turbulent World, most of the countries in East Asia have been relatively calm and stable in Political & Economic sphere. What reasons would you assign for this success? (2009)
  • Discuss the importance of Pak-China relations. How does this relationship effect political and security environment in South Asia? (2013)
  • The linguistic burden of English, Arabic, Urdu and the mother tongue on learning is a serious issue requiring serious treatment. Analyze. (2000)
  • Longer period of political stability is the requirement to institutionalize reformist polices whereas the same has not been available in Pakistan. Assess the prospects of recent multiple reforms in the context of this statement. (2000)
  • Discuss how Pakistan is affected by political and economic stakes and nuclear concern of Japan in South Asia? (2000)
  • Note: Gender prejudices and women empowerment in Pakistan (2001)
  • Evaluate the structural changes introduced in Pakistan’s economy over the past two years. (2001)
  • “In her foreign policy and trade, Pakistan has never benefited fully from her ideal geostrategic location “. Discuss (2002)
  • Note: Pakistan’s Pollution Problem (2002)
  • Note: Kalabagh Dam (2002)(2006)
  • In what ways India-Israel nexus, India-China bilateral relations and India-Iran geo-economics affect Pakistan? (2003)
  • In the Muslim Societies factors like justice, rejuvenation, education and enlightenment, which determine the conditions of human societies are miserable lacking. Analyze the problems confronting the Muslim world in the light of this statement. (2005)
  • Note: October 8, Post earthquake Scenario (2006)
  • Examine the causes of disturbances in Baluchistan. (2006)
  • Note: Chinese aided development Projects in Pakistan. (2010)
  • The issue of central imp.about corruption and accountability in Pakistan is the increase in corruption despite six decades of efforts to eradicate it. Analyze and comment on the root cause of rampant corruption in the society. (2010)
  • Note: Aghaz-e-haqooq balochistan package. (2010)
  • If India is granted Permanent seat in Security Council; what can be the options available to Pakistan to manage the Indian Hegemony in South Asia? (2011)
  • How Pakistan can reduce foreign debt? Suggest mechanism in Pakistan economy to handle external perspective of Pakistan economy. (2011)
  • Give suggestions to manage political instability in Pakistan (2011)
  • What is climate change impact? What are its implications on Pakistan? How to manage climate change in policy and practice? (2011)
  • Discuss the impact of foreign aid on Pakistan in post 9/11 scenario. (2012)
  • Substantiate Pakistan’s role in Common wealth. (2012)
  • How can the energy crisis of Pakistan be resolved? (2012)
  • How the corruption be managed in Pakistan? (2012)
  • Discuss the successes and failures of political parties in bringing about a meaningful change in Pakistan. (2013)
  • Critically evaluate the causes of Energy crisis in Pakistan and its consequences for the economic growth and social fabric in the country. (2013)
  • Substantiate Pakistan’s role in UN peace keeping missions. (2014)
  • Critically appreciate the decision making in Pakistan regarding energy crisis in Pakistan. (2014)
  • How can the corruption elimination be made part of the government systems of Pakistan. (2014)
  • In the current relationship of mutual dependence, American obligations arc minimal while Pakistani ones are substantial Comment. (2003)
  • The US President Bush visit to Pakistan had yielded no positive outcome except for promises and pledges. In the backdrop of changing US mindset former Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali had urged the government to establish more vibrant relations with Iran, Saudi Arabia and China. Comment. (2006)
  • Discuss the various dimensions of Pakistan US relations in the wake of Pakistan’s playing the role as a front line state against International terrorism. (2008)
  • Discuss the impact of AFPAK policy on Pak-US relations. (2014)
  • Note: Pak-Afghan Relations (2006)
  • How far India factor is responsible for the present state of Pakistan-Afghanistan relations? Analyze. (2008)
  • What is AFPAK policy; how to manage its implication on Pakistan? (2011)
  • Analyze the convergence and divergence of interests in Pakistan –Iran relations since the last two decades. (2005)

 

INDIA

  • Note: Communal riots in India (2002)
  • The amicable solution of Siachen glacier and Sir Creek maritime boundary disputes might harbinger the settlement of the core issue of Kashmir between Pakistan and India. Discuss. (2008)
  • That feasible measures would you suggest to bridge the existing trust deficit between Pakistan and India for the resumption of stalled process of composite dialogue. (2010)
  • If India is granted Permanent seat in Security Council; what can be the options available to Pakistan to manage the Indian Hegemony in South Asia? (2011)
  • Evaluate the significance of water conflict between India and Pakistan in global perspective of climate change. (2012)
  • Evaluate the significance of water conflict between India and Pakistan in perspective of water management projects in Indian held Kashmir.(2014)

KASHMIR

  • Resolution of Kashmir issue between India and Pakistan can bring peace and prosperity in the region. Discuss. (2013)

CONSTITUTION

  • Highlight the constitutional issues affecting Pakistan’s politics since the army take-over in October 1999. (2001)
  • Debate, National Interests VS Democratic Values in the context of recent political and constitutional developments in Pakistan. (2003)
  • How best can the issue of Provincial Autonomy in Pakistan be resolved within a viable Federal Structure? Discuss (2005)
  • “The troubling issue in Pak.pertains to an overbearing centre’s supremacy in the federations and the resulting demand for Provincial autonomy.”discuss. (2010)
  • Assess the growing impact of information technology on Pakistan’s socio-economic and educational complexion. (2000)
  • Judicious evaluation of examination scripts by the Universities and Boards of Education in Pakistan needs to be ensured. How can it be accomplished? (2001)
  • Countries that recognized the importance of higher education are way ahead of those who have ignored it. What measures would you suggest to upgrade the standard of higher education in Pakistan? (2006)
  • What can be the strategies to reduce dependency of education sector on governmental funding? (2011)
  • Discuss issues in the higher educational system vis-a-vis 18th amendment in Pakistan. (2012)
  • What is character building? Access the factor (character building) in education systems of Pakistan and give suggestions for improvement.(2014)
  • Sino-Pakistan collaboration on GwadarSea opening will have far-reaching economic and geo-strategic consequences. Comment. (2001)
  • The Gwadar Port would have great strategic significance in addition to its vast economic potential not only for the uplift of Baluchistan but for the neighboring countries like China, Afghanistan and Central Asian States, comment. (2005)


UN SECURITY COUNCIL

  • The UN Security Council is regarded as a tool for the veto wielding powers and a debating forum for non permanent members. Make a case for restructuring the Council with special emphasis on judicious distribution of veto power. (2006)
  • If India is granted Permanent seat in Security Council; what can be the options available to Pakistan to manage the Indian Hegemony in South Asia? (2011)
  • Note: Shanghai Cooperation Organization (2001)
  • Why Pakistan is desperately seeking full-fledged membership in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization? (2008)
  • Pakistan provides the natural link between the SCO states to connect the Eurasian heartland with the Arabian sea and South Asia.” Substantiate Pakistan’s claim for the membership of SCO in the view of the above mentioned statement. (2010)
  • The ongoing anti blasphemy campaign launched by Muslims all over the world and the West’s obduracy not to yield on the issue in the name of freedom of press has put the two on a collision. What role the UN and the OIC can play to prevent recurrence of acts of blasphemy in future? (2006)
  • What are the ground realities inhibiting the capacity of Organization of Islamic conference as an effective body to protect the legitimate interests of Muslim world1?(2003)
  • Analyze the role of OIC in the resolution of problems faced by its members (2002)
  • The organization of Islamic Countries (OIC) has not played and effective role in protecting the rights of member states. How can it become a vibrant organization to achieve its objectives? (2007)
  • Discuss politics of World Trade Organization and Globalization. (2000)
  • Discuss the potential challenges Pakistan is facing in the WTO regime. (2008)
  • Association of the South East Asian Nation (ASEAN) is a success story of regional organization. What lessons SAARC can learn from the experience of ASEAN? (2007)
  • The United Nations Organization is being side-lined by denying the peace-making role that legitimately belonged to her. Examine the statement. (2001)
  • Highlight the factors and forces, which have contributed to sideline the United Nations Organization in terms of its peace and security role. (2003)
  • Give a critique of the performance of SAARC since its inception (2002)
  • Association of the South East Asian Nation (ASEAN) is a success story of regional organization. What lessons SAARC can learn from the experience of ASEAN? (2007)
  • Note: Afghanistan is SAARC (2008)
  • Give recommendations to make SAARC an effective organization at regional level keeping in view success of European Union. (2011)
  • Note: Expansion of European Union (EU) (2002)
  • Note: NATO’s expansion is Eastern Europe (2008)
  • Note: IMF’s objectives in funding Pakistan. (2000)
  • Note: Noam Chomsky (2003)
  • Note: Arundhati Roy (2003)
  • Note: Edward Wadic Saeed (2003)
  • Note: Eqbal Ahmcd (not Allama Iqbal) (2003)


MISCELLANEOUS SHORT NOTES

  • Note: Economic consequences or preparation at the World Trade Centre (2001)
  • Note: Aftermath of Agra-Summit (2001)
  • Note: France’s policy on Iraq’s invasion. (2003)
  • Note: Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI) Gas Pipelines project. (2006)
  • Note: Human Development (2007)
  • Note: Geneva Convention (2007)
  • Note: Balkanization (2007)
  • Note: Improving Quality of life in Africa (2009)
  • Note: Free Market economy and economic melt down (2009)
  • Note: Economic Potential of Central Asia. (2009)
  • Note: Combating corruption in developing countries (2009)
  • Note: Liberhan commission report. (2010)

SOURCE: http://www.cssforum.com.pk

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